Long-Term Use of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Decreases the Risk of Cutaneous Melanoma: Results of a United States Case–Control Study
Clara Curiel-Lewandrowski1,2, Tamar Nijsten3, Maria L. Gomez1, Loes M. Hollestein4, Michael B. Atkins5 and Robert S. Stern1
Experimental and observational studies continue to demonstrate conflicting results regarding the role of several commonly used drugs as melanoma chemopreventive agents. This case–control study was designed to assess the associations between cutaneous melanoma (CM) and exposure to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDs) and statins in current users.
A total of 400 CM and 600 eligible age- and gender-matched community based controls were prospectively recruited and interviewed. We assessed participants’ demographic characteristics, CM risk factors, and current and previous use of medications. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between NSAIDs and/or aspirin (ASA), statin exposure, and CM risk. Half of the subjects were men (mean age 60 years). After adjusting for confounders, use of any type of NSAIDs for more than 5 years significantly reduced the risk of melanoma development compared with the low-exposure group adjusted OR¼0.57; 95% CI¼0.43–0.77). Subgroup analyses showed that the observed risk reduction was primarily driven by continuous ASA use (45 years adjusted OR¼0.51, 95% CI¼0.35–0.75). No significant protective effect was observed with statin exposure (OR¼0.97, 95% CI¼0.73–1.29).
Long-term use of NSAIDs, especially ASA, is associated with a significantly decreased risk of CM development. Clinical intervention studies are warranted to further investigate the potential role of ASA and other NSAIDs as chemopreventive agents for CM.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology (2011) 131, 1460–1468; doi:10.1038/jid.2011.58; published online 10 March 2011